Adam Driver went to bus driving school for his role in the film. Production crew was arranging for Driver to get a bus license, and while they were trying to organize it, he on his own figured it out and was already in the school.
The man rapping in the laundry is played by Method Man, a member of Wu Tang Clan. In Jarmusch's 'Ghost Dog' The RZA, also a member of Wu Tang Clan, has a cameo and he also wrote the score for the film.
The last poem Paterson writes with the line; "Would you rather be a fish", is from the song 'Swinging On A Star' (Burke/Van Heusen): A fish won't do anything but swim in a brook He can't write his name or read a book And to fool the people is his only thought Though he slippery - he still gets caught But then if that sort of life is what you wish You may grow up to be a fish.
On Empire podcast #237, Adam Driver revealed that he underwent training and became a licensed bus driver. He wanted to be able to be on "auto pilot" while driving the bus. It also meant that the film could feature more authentic footage opening up the possibilities for a greater variety of camera shots. He was taught over a period of three months in Queens, New York City, passing the test one week before filming began.
Laura says she has the same name as Petrarch's wife (Petrarch was an Italian scholar and poet of the 14th century). Actually, Laura was the muse of Petrarch: she never was his wife and they actually had limited contacts, if any.
Laura mentions a dream in which she had twins. After this point & throughout the film, Paterson encounters twins on his way to work, in the bar, and twice on the bus. Also, the young poet appears to be a twin.
Characters throughout the movie remark on the coincidence of Paterson (Adam Driver) having the same name as the town in which he lives (Paterson, New Jersey). Paterson, a bus driver, is played by an actor who is coincidentally named "Driver."
There was no reference to twins in the original script. In a Q&A at the Landmark Sunshine Cinema in New York Jim Jarmusch revealed the serendipity of the twins in the film. At the beginning of filming he realized one of the children extras on a bus scene was, in fact, a twin, when her mother and sister came to pick her up. He told the mother to bring both sisters for filming the next day, and started to include twins throughout the rest of the shoot. He then added Laura's dialogue about her dream with twins. To him, the twins (as well as the dog-jacking foreshadowing) in the film are "anti-significant." One might think at the end of the film Laura would be revealed to be pregnant with twins or that Marvin would be stolen, but neither occur.
The trivia items below may give away important plot points.
After the notebook is destroyed, Paterson mentions that they were only words written on water. This might be a reference to the English poet John Keats, whose gravestone epitaph reads 'Here lies One whose Name was writ in Water.'
The song mentioned by Paterson by the end of the film is 'Swinging on a star', originally recorded by Bing Crosby in 1944. It has also been recorded by many other artists, such as Frank Sinatra, The Rattles or Tony Bennett.